Tremelimumab With Chemoembolization or Ablation for Liver Cancer
Liver Cell Caricinoma - Liver Cancer - Hepatocellular Carcinoma - Liver Neoplasms
Conditions: official terms
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular - Liver Neoplasms
Conditions: Keywords
Liver Cancer, Monoclonal Antibody, CTLA-4, Ablative Therapy
Study Type
Study Phase
Phase 1
Study Design
Allocation: Non-Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Safety Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment
Name: Tremelimumab Type: Drug
Name: TACE Type: Procedure
Name: Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) Type: Procedure
Overall Status

- Tremelimumab is a cancer treatment drug that helps the immune system recognize and destroy cancer cells. Researchers want to see if it can be used to treat advanced liver cancer. The drug will be given with one of two types of treatment for liver cancer. The first type, transarterial catheter chemoembolization (TACE), injects chemotherapy drugs into the tumor through the main blood vessel that is feeding it. That blood vessel is then closed off to help keep the drugs in the tumor longer. The second type, radiofrequency ablation (RFA), uses a heated probe to destroy the tumor tissue. Researchers want to study how safe and effective these treatments are with the study drug.


- To test the safety and effectiveness of Tremelimumab with TACE or RFA for advanced liver cancer.


- Individuals at least 18 years of age who have advanced liver cancer that has not responded to other treatments.
Detailed Description

Worldwide, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignancy with a median survival of 6-9 months. For patients with advanced disease sorafenib is the only approved drug and this has limited benefit.

Tremelimumab is a monoclonal antibody against CTLA4. Anti-CTLA4 therapy has been shown to enhance anti-tumor immunity by blocking tumor-induced immune suppression of cytotoxic T cells.

Both trans-arterial catheter chemoembolization (TACE) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) have been shown to induce a peripheral immune response.

The underlying hypothesis of this study is that the effect of anti-CTLA4 treatment can be enhanced by TACE or RFA in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.



To assess the safety and feasibility of combining Tremelimumab with trans-arterial catheter chemoembolization (TACE) or radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with advanced HCC.


To evaluate the following in patients with advanced HCC undergoing TACE or radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in combination with Tremelimumab:

- changes in immune parameters in the peripheral blood

- clinical indicators of efficacy (response rate, time to tumor progression, overall survival)


Histologically or cytologically confirmed diagnosis of HCC.

Childs-Pugh A/B7 cirrhosis only is allowed. If patient does not have cirrhosis, this limitation does not apply.

Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) Stage B and C patients.

Patients must have disease that is not amenable to potentially curative resection, radiofrequency ablation, or liver transplantation.
Criteria for eligibility
Healthy Volunteers: No
Maximum Age: N/A
Minimum Age: 18 Years
Gender: Both
Criteria: - INCLUSION CRITERIA: Patients must have histopathological confirmation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or (Cohort E only) biliary tract carcinoma (BTC) by the Laboratory of Pathology of the NCI prior to entering this study OR histopathological confirmation of carcinoma in the

setting of clinical and radiological characteristics which, together with the pathology, are highly suggestive of a diagnosis of HCC (or biliary tract carcinoma in Cohort E). Fibrolammelar variant is also allowed. For cohort E, the term BTC includes intraor extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder cancer or ampullary cancer, as long as there is an intrahepatic component amenable to RFA. Patients must have disease that is not amenable to potentially curative resection, transplantation or ablation. For Cohorts A, C and D patients must have progressed on, been intolerant to, or refused prior sorafenib therapy. Cohort E patients must have

received at least one line of chemotherapy for BTC. Disease must be technically amenable to transhepatic arterial chemoembolization (TACE), radiofrequency ablation (RFA) cryoablation or stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Each case will be discussed at GI tumor board with interventional

radiology. Patients must have evaluable disease. If liver cirrhosis is present, patient must have a Child-Pugh A/B7 classification. Age greater than or equal to 18 years Life expectancy of greater than 3 months. ECOG performance status 0-2. Patients must have normal organ and marrow function as defined below:

- leukocytes greater than or equal to 3,000/mcL

- absolute neutrophil count greater than or equal to 1,000/mcL

- platelets greater than or equal to 60,000/mcL

- total bilirubin, If cirrhosis present: Part of Child Pugh requirement. If no cirrhosis: Bili should be less than or equal to 2 times ULN

- Serum albumin, If cirrhosis present: Part of Child Pugh requirement. If no cirrhosis: albumin should be greater than or equal to 2.5g/dl

- Patients are eligible with ALT or AST up to 5 times ULN.

- creatinine, less than 1.5 times institution upper limit of normal


-creatinine clearance greater than or equal to 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2), as calculated below, for patients with creatinine levels above institutional normal Patients must have recovered from any acute toxicity related to prior therapy, including surgery. Toxicity should be less than or equal to grade 1 or returned to baseline. Patients must not have other invasive malignancies within the past 5 years (with the exception of non-melanoma skin cancers, non-invasive bladder cancer or localized prostate cancer for whom systemic therapy is not required). Patient must be able to understand and willing to sign a written informed consent document.

EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Patients who have had standard of care chemotherapy, large field radiotherapy, or major surgery must wait 2 weeks prior to entering the study. For recent experimental therapies a 28 day period of time must elapse before treatment. Patients who have undergone prior liver transplantation are ineligible. Patients with known brain metastases will be excluded from this clinical trial because of their poor prognosis and because they often develop progressive neurologic dysfunction that would confound the evaluation of neurologic and other adverse events. Uncontrolled intercurrent illness including, but not limited to, ongoing or active systemic infection, symptomatic congestive heart failure, unstable angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia or psychiatric illness/social situations that would limit compliance with study requirements. History of chronic autoimmune disease (e.g., Addison s disease, multiple sclerosis, Graves disease, Hashimoto s thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, hypophysitis, etc.) with symptomatic disease within the 3 years before randomization. Note: Active vitiligo or a history of vitiligo will not be a basis for exclusion. Dementia or significantly altered mental status that would prohibit the understanding or rendering of Information and Consent and compliance with the requirements of the protocol. Diverticulitis (either active or history of) within the past 2 years. Note that diverticulosis is permitted. Active or history of inflammatory bowel disease (colitis, Crohn s), irritable bowel disease, celiac disease, or other serious, chronic, gastrointestinal conditions associated with diarrhea. Active or history of systemic lupus erythematosus or Wegener s granulomatosis. Currently receiving immunosuppressive doses of steroids or other immunosuppressive medications (inhaled and topical steroids are permitted) History of sarcoidosis syndrome Patients should not be vaccinated with live attenuated vaccines within 1 month of starting Tremelimumab treatment. HIV-positive patients receiving anti-retroviral therapy are excluded from this study due to the possibility of pharmacokinetic interactions between antiretroviral medications and Tremelimumab. HIV positive patients not receiving antiretroviral therapy are excluded due to the possibility that Tremelimumab may worsen their condition and the likelihood that the underlying condition may obscure the attribution of adverse events. History of hypersensitivity reaction to human or mouse antibody products. Pregnancy and breast feeding are exclusion factors. The effects of Tremelimumab on the developing human fetus are unknown. Enrolled patients must agree to use adequate contraception (hormonal or barrier method of birth control; abstinence) prior to study entry, the duration of study participation and 3 months after the end of the treatment. Should a woman become pregnant or suspect she is pregnant while she or her partner is participating in this study, she should inform her treating physician immediately. Patients with unhealed surgical wounds for more than 30 days.
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike
Bethesda, Maryland, United States
Status: Recruiting
Contact: For more information at the NIH Clinical Center contact National Cancer Institute Referral Office - 888-624-1937
Start Date
April 2013
Completion Date
December 2015
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)
Record processing date processed this data on July 28, 2015 page